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Al Azhar Mosque

The Al-Azhar Mosque was built shortly after the founding of Cairo; it was named “Al-Azhar” after Fatima al-Zahraa, daughter of the Prophet Mohammad. It is home to the oldest university in the world, where the first lecture was delivered in 975 A.D. Today the mosque is reserved for prayer, and the university offers religious studies, modern schools of medicine, science and foreign languages.

The mosque was built in two years beginning in 971 AD. The school of theology (madrassa) connected with it was founded in 988 as an Ismaili Shia school, but it later became a Sunni school, which it remains to this day. It claims to be the oldest Islamic university in the world, but this is disputed by the Kairaouine Mosque in Fes, Morocco.
The core academic life of Al-Azhar has remained much the same for over a millennium: its students study the Qur'an and Islamic law in detail, along with logic, grammar, rhetoric, and how to calculate the lunar phases of the moon. Most of this learning is done by listening in a circle (halqa) at the feet of a sheikh and rote memorization. As students advance, they may engage in Socratic dialogue with their teachers or instruct their juniors.

Al-Azhar does not admit students who are not practicing Muslims but provides training in secular professions; it is thus a unique combination of a theological seminary and regular university, with faculties of medicine and engineering established in 1961. Al-Azhar is considered by most Sunni Muslims to be the most prestigious school of Islamic law, and its scholars are seen as the highest scholars in the Muslim world. Its stated objectives remain the propagation of Islamic culture and the Arabic language.

The Al-Azhar Mosque is a grand structure that reflects many centuries of styles. Entrance is through the 15th-century Barber's Gate, where students traditionally had their heads shaved.
This leads into a great courtyard (sahn), which dates from the 10th century and is overlooked by three stately minarets. The courtyard's white facade, accented by rosettes and keel-arched panels, is mostly from the Fatimid period.
The latticework-screened residential quarters of the madrassas on the right side date from the Mamluke period. These are rarely open to visitors, but tourists may enter the prayer hall, which is warmly carpeted and supported by alabaster pillars.
The university's library (not open to visitors), which was consolidated in 1897, is considered second in range and importance only to Dar Al-kotob Al-Masriah in Egypt, as far as the number of Islamic books and manuscripts are concerned. The library comprises of 99,062 books consist of 595,668 volumes of the most precious manuscripts and rare books, some as old as the 8th century.

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